Kintex and Virtex use the same process (28 nm I think), the difference is what they call the "fabric design" that in the case of Virtex is tailored for higher performance as the price tag suggests.
Ultrascale uses a 20 nm process, the 7-Series 28. The smaller the better, don't ask me why.
Ultrascale+ is 16 nm. As per above, allegedly better than ultrascale.
Zynq has a hard processor along with the FPGA. So you don't have to implement soft processors like Microblaze.
Besides the hardened cores in Zynq devices, you can have a 'soft' processor on the FPGA fabric, namely the Microblaze (both in processor and microcontroller flavours) and, recently, ARM cores. Of course, you are not limited to that and can design your own processors although it takes time and at the end of the day what counts is what it does.
There are Kintex and Virtex Ultrascale and Ultrascale+ products without a hard processor. Not Artix (yet).